In this mode Grape performs kinship analysis of arbitrary complexity. Even though it would be possible to have just one dialog to setup any such case it would not be convenient. To support general case the user interface of the dialog should be rather complex which makes it less suitable for simple kinship cases like regular disputed paternity. That is the reason why Grape provides various dialogs for various cases: simple interface for simple cases, more complex dialogs for more difficult situations.

To choose a suitable interface hit "Setup Case" button. The following dialog appears. It contains 6 images that you can click to access corresponding scenarios and 2 buttons "Single Person X Random Alternative", "General Case" to handle more general cases that are not covered by 6 predefined scenarios.



 
Details of the usage of each of the scenarios are described below. In all predefined cases we use notation "Person X" for the unknown person. Click the image to see detailed description of the dialog that appears if you choose that scenario.


This is the standard disputed paternity/maternity case given that genotype of the second parent is available. The number of children involved can be arbitrary.
The difference with the previous scenario is that the second parent is untyped and only genotypes of the children are available.

Genotypes of one or both parents are known for Person X.

Genotypes of one or more siblings of Person X are known. Optionally the genotypes of one or both parents can be known as well.
Generalization of the previous case. Analysis can include additionally the genotypes of half siblings.
Typical scenario for missed person case. Any combination of the genotypes of children/parent(s)/sibling(s)/spouse of Person X can be  used.
Single Person X Random Alternative This option is the generalization of all scenarios above and should be used if your case does not fit any predefined templates. It is assumed that we have a single person (Person X) and an arbitrary group of other persons G. Hypothesis Hp states some specific relationships between Person  X and G; alternative hypothesis Hd declares that Person X is unrelated to G.
General Case

This option should be used if there is no “central person” (i.e. Person X) at all: we just have a group of persons and make two different assumptions Hp and Hd about kinship relationships inside this group.



For example, the motherless disputed paternity case dialog would be as follows




Under hypothesis Hp it is assumed that Person X (the name can be changed) is the true father of children listed in the "Children" box. Under another hypothesis Hd Person X is unrelated to the children. For example, let the name of Person X be Ahmed Murta and there are two children listed as Child 1 and Child 2. Check box "Show symbolic output" if you want to see the formulae used for calculations.

Enter genotypes of all these three persons. It can be done in exactly the same way as described in Simple Case Mode : first of all  Select Loci  that you will use in your calculations, then Set Genotypes of all persons. Optionally you can change coancestry coefficient using Choose Θ button and enter additional information through Case Info dialog. All the information you entered will be displayed in the main window of Grape




Then click "Calculate" button to get the result.




Besides Likelihood Ratio LR and Match Probability MP (usually in the context of paternity analysis the exclusion probability 1-MP is used), Grape also calculates P-values (or observed significance levels) for both hypotheses. P-values analysis is one of the most classical and well known approach in hypotheses testing in mathematical statistics. It was used before in connection with DNA typing (see, for example, exact tests for loci independence Evett I.W., Weir B.S. Interpreting DNA Evidence, Sinauer Associates, MA, USA, 1998),  but apparently not in connection with paternity or kinship testing. A straightforward approach to the calculation of P-values is far beyond the resources of the modern computers and Grape uses advanced mathematics to make calculations in real time, in few seconds.

The formulae used for calculations of LR is displayed separately (given that the box "Show symbolic output" was checked). Below is how it looks like for the considered example



As in the Simple Case Mode the case can be saved in a file or in an embedded database. Saving into a Grape's database can be quite useful in problems of identifying of human remains. Assume that in the considered example Ahmed Murta died in a plane crush and it is needed to identify his remains (along with remains of other victims). Child 1 and Child 2 are his only known relatives. Create a case in Grape similar to the example above, but with unknown genotype of  Ahmed Murta. Save this case into a database (say Database 1), do the similar things with relatives of other victims. In another database (say Database 2) put genotypes of human remains. Now switch to the Database Operations Mode and use Find Matches functionality to compare Database 1 and Database 2. You will get the table that shows which samples belong to which victims.